Category Archives: Ancient Egypt

Did Israel exist before the Exodus?

Most Bible readers use the term “Exodus” to refer to a unitary event. For instance, there is considerable argument about using 1 Kings 6:1 as a means to date the “Exodus”. That verse, however, does not mention Moses or the … Continue reading

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Egypt, Hazor and the rise of Israel

I know that the prediction that archaeologists will dig up a library or archive at Tel-Hazor could come true at any time. Such a find would possibly make mush of this article. But I am just going to go with … Continue reading

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Where was Merneptah’s Israel?

The closing lines of the Merneptah Stele contain the first clear non-biblical mention of Israel. They seem to show that a people-group named Israel existed in about -1209. Here is a translation (see here pps 96-97): The princes are prostrate, … Continue reading

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The “Cushite” wife of Moses

I studied the Dead Sea Scrolls in depth in the 1970s and have kept up with developments and new theories to some extent. But it is time to reeducate myself. So I am beginning a book project on The Meaning … Continue reading

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Omnipresence in Egypt and Israel

One of the ways people have tried to grasp the theology of ancient Israel is to link it with the faith of the Egyptian king, Akhenaten. Akhenaten, in my opinion, has been misread as one who believed in only one … Continue reading

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They knew the lyrics before the exile

The creation story in Genesis 1:1-2:4 was written by priests. The Torah, whether you buy into the existence of four main sources or not, has a bunch of material that allows scholars to say that priests wrote it. The shorthand … Continue reading

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An Exodus of children?

If you search online about ancient Egyptian slavery you will find that there is a lot of deconstruction. The idea that slaves built the pyramids is wrong.  Slavery became more of a thing much later, in the New Kingdom, usually … Continue reading

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