This is a spectacular artifact found recently at Yahud in Israel near ancient Lod, which had settlement since about 5600 BCE. However this dates to the Middle Bronze Age, 1800 BCE or so, before Israel emerged around 1300-1200. This dates to just before or at the beginning of the Hyksos period in Egypt. Some chronologies would put the first Patriarchs in about this period. I think about the “household gods” Rachel took from Laban’s house (Genesis 31:19).
It appears that this is an ornamented jug. We don’t know about any religious significance or who the thinker-like figure is supposed to be. Gilad Itach, director of the excavation, is quoted:
According to Itach, “It seems that these objects are funerary offerings that were buried in honor of an important member of the ancient community. It was customary in antiquity to believe that the objects that were interred alongside the individual continued with him into the next world. To the best of my knowledge such a rich funerary assemblage that also includes such a unique pottery vessel has never before been discovered in the country”.
Read more here.